The Unforgivable Inaccuracy that Makes History’s Vikings (Almost) Unwatchable

History’s hit new show “Vikings” has drawn a fair amount of praise from critics who have hailed it as the next “Game of Thrones” and the show that will rescue the network formerly known as The History Channel from its “Ancient Aliens” past. The show follows the saga of Ragnar Lothbrok, a legendary 8th century Viking who carved out a small kingdom for himself. “Vikings” has been renewed for a second season, and its unclear whether they’ll stay with Ragnar or jump ahead to show Viking quests to Iceland, Greenland, and beyond. Personally, I’d love to see them tackle the attempt by some eastern Vikings to sack Constantinople, but that will probably have to wait for season 67 at this rate. Either way, despite the praise from critics and viewers, the show has come under fire from historians. Often the criticism focuses on how the Vikings are dressed, whether Iceland Spar was really used , or what type of government they had. All these concerns are fine for the nit-picking historian, yet they omit quite possibly the most egregious error – that the Viking world had no knowledge of the British Isles or anything outside the Baltic.

Some have pointed this glaring inaccuracy out, most notably a piece in the American Spectator which was overshadowed by the author’s insanely paranoid argument that the show was an attack on American conservatism. The belief that 8th century Scandinavians were isolated  from the rest of the world is preposterous and so easily demonstrably false. For instance, ask scholars the causes of the Viking Age and one of the most popular hypotheses is that Scandinavian traders were facing increasing discrimination from an increasingly Christianized Europe. Therefore, Viking raids began as reprisals for attacks on their merchants. In this sense the show does invoke the clash of civilizations and religions, yet from a position that neither knew of each other. To see why this narrative of isolation is plainly stupid, one only needs to look at the origins of Anglo-Saxon England. The history of pre-medieval England, perhaps more than any other country, is one of invasion and assimilation. Some of the earliest invaders came from what is now Spain’s basque region, followed by the Britons, the Romans, the Angles and Saxons, the Danes, and finally the Normans before things settled down. The last two are more or less Viking invasions even though the Normans were Christianized at that point, yet the Anglo-Saxon invasion clearly shows some parallels to the later ones. First, take a look where they were before moving on to England.


Yup, that’s right at the mouth of Vikingland, in modern-day Denmark, a full half-millenia before the Viking Age. Of course the reasons for the Anglo-Saxon invasion differ from the causes of Viking expansion. Most historians agree that geographic pressures forced migration from the eroding landscape of Northern Europe and various communities of Angles, Saxons, Frisians, and Jutes lived side-by-side in England. A migration map provides a more detailed view of the 5th century.

It should be fairly clear then, that Scandinavian communities had a close relationship and history with the British Isles, (not to mention that all Danish Vikings had to do was walk south to realize that there is a world outside the Baltic). One could view Scandinavia as the center of two spheres, one in the Baltic and one in the North Sea. That would explain why Danish and Norwegian vikings raided and built trade networks to the West, and why Swedish vikings went east, establishing kingdoms in Russia. Viking expansion was very much based on already known trade routes and expanding those routes. For instance, Dublin was founded as a Viking trading post. Viking culture certainly focused on battle and personal glory, but these were more influences for their expansion and quests for new territories rather than their sole motivation.

I understand why the show might try to take such a narrative – voyage and discovery comprise the common conception of Vikings. But if this is what they wanted to go for, then why not tell the story of Leif Erickson or other Vikings who really were explorers? There is not a single episode that does not play off the supposed VIking ignorance of Britain or vice versa and every time it makes me cringe and takes it out of any historical context. In this way, Vikings comes off as much more fantasy than historical drama (the opposite might be said of Game of Thrones). The viewer gets lost in the mythical realm of Scandinavia with staggering mountains and fjords serving as symbols for its isolation rather than the flat plains of Denmark bordering the Frankish empire.

Why is this important?

This portrayal of Vikings would be forgivable if it wasn’t on a channel called History. I’m not saying they need to get every little detail right, but they can’t misconstrue the entire fabric of the past to try to milk dry a new world/clash of civilization narrative. Ignoring trade networks and cross cultural interaction ignores one of the largest driving factors of history, it’s how ideas spread, how alliances form, and how empires rise. Very few times, outside the age of exploration, have groups encountered each other unexpectedly, without knowledge of their existence. The Roman Empire knew relatively little of the Chinese, yet thrived off trade with them, especially for their silk. Scandinavia knew about their neighbors.

This view of history also promotes the myth of barbarism, that anything outside the Greek/Roman/Christian worlds were just tribes of barbarians, ignorant about their world and intent on raiding and pillaging. History has done some job to ameliorate that by giving glimpses of the legal system and religion, which is why I say it feels more like fantasy. We tend to view barbarians on the periphery of great civilizations as distinct and separate groups when in reality there was plenty of interlinking networks and cross-culture communication. Even before the Viking Age the Danes had begun constructing defensive fortifications against the Franks in the form of Danevirkes, clearly designed to mark their boundaries and keep others out much like Hadrian’s Wall in Scotland. Nonetheless the border town of Hedeby served as an important trading center during Ragnar’s time between the Franks, Slavs, and Scandinavians.

The Viking Age did not emerge as a clash of civilizations but rather as the north’s ascendancy to power relative to other European kingdoms, and alongside the economic growth of the Frankish and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Portraying Scandinavians as internally responsible for the sudden start of the Viking Age by designing a new ship breaks a technological bottleneck that never even existed.

This critique may feel like nitpicking, but the narrative is referenced in nearly every episode and is the driving motivation for the Vikings. Outside of this glaring error it’s not necessarily a bad show, it’s just hard to compartmentalize the terrible history from the good.

14 Comments to “The Unforgivable Inaccuracy that Makes History’s Vikings (Almost) Unwatchable”

  1. I just discovered your blog following the link from cracked will guaranteed be coming back to enjoy your writings again. As for the show Vikings historical accuracy would be greatly appreciated its a damn shame the history channel constantly rewrites history and misinforms people. The true story of events in that time is more then entertaining enough.

    • That’s great to hear! And I totally agree, changing it often makes it less entertaining.

    • Enjoy the damn show.. Go back and retake a history if you want to know the accuracy despite our generation, whom were not present to actually know what the fuck happened.. People tend to exaggerate their life accomplishments anyways and who’s to say history itself is accurate?

  2. I’m really into history, but history aside the Vikings is a really good show, great charactors & good action…true or not it beats the crap out of all those lame “reality” shows and boring sitcoms !

    • Yes, the show had me at “VIkings!” I had to say “(almost) unwatchable” because I enjoy it and will probably keep following it when it comes back next season.

  3. I couldn’t have written it out any better! I also like your comparison with Game of Thrones, here i can’t agree more. While GoT is fantasy it is probably the most “historically realistic” show that depicts the medevial world and society damn well, and that makes me sad that so called historical entertainment often is not very historical.

    Just myy thoughts, thanks for a good read!

  4. I love this series, but saw something dumb in the 3rd episode of the 2nd season. A little ways into the episode, we see the King Ecbert of Wessex, speaking about the northmen, while arranging small metal objects on a table. The metal objects are scepter-shaped, and with good reason. They’re called “dorjes” which are TIBETAN ritual instruments used by BUddhist monks in conjunction with ritual bells called drilbu. TIBETAN!!!!!!

  5. the portrayal of the Saxon soldiery does my head in, did in the first season with that scene on the beach, the way they are dressed, armed and how they “fight”, as far as i know its totally inaccurate, thats where i find the program falls flat

  6. I remember my jaw dropping when I started watching the series. I couldn’t believe they were suggesting these people had no knowledge of the west! I had to assume they were short-cutting history, trying to tell a (somewhat) plausible way the first “vikings” might have sailed west to explore tales of a green and fertile land before it was common knowledge. But then the reticence of the jarl was also baffling. The choice of clothing and tattoos was to be expected since the show wants to be popular but it seems to me the climate is rather mild nontheless. I do think the show is entertaining, despite the inaccuracies, and despite some questionable acting (Jarls Haraldson & Borg in particular), but I’m always surprised when people change history or even books in ways that don’t seem to help the storyline or plot. Why fix what isn’t broke? Makes one wonder if if they’re salvaging a section due to some acting or budgeting issue, or some other interference. I don’t make movies, but if I did, I would be too embarrassed to have such incorrect content displayed in the world forever.

  7. I am impressed. Very well written. I love the show, but as you write, it could be so much better if the scenery and the facts was correct. Denmark, is flat, and the parts of Norway and Sweden that was populated ( mostly ) was at the coasts in the south. Uppsala, looked like it was up in Geiranger, when in fact its just small hills there. Vikings by the way, what was that ? Svearna went to east from around 600.
    It was going raiding that was called ” Gå Viking “

  8. No, you’re wrong. The show does not suggest that all Scandinavians were oblivious to the isles. It simply follows one small group of Norse explorers. It is entirely plausible that a group of people would’ve been unaware of their Western neighbours. Historical documentation was relatively sparse in that part of the world, in that age – you can’t make such assertions.

    • Even for a small group of Norse explorers, being oblivious to the British Isles is wildly implausible. There had been regular trade routes for almost a thousand years! Trade and travel was the bread and butter of Norse society, and anyone would surely have heard of the British Isles through word of mouth from neighbouring communities or travelers. It’s as ridiculous as basing a modern series on the premise that no-one knows about the existence of China.

      And it is especially ridiculous, because Angle-Saxons were Scandinavians from the same general area as Ragnar Lodbrog, i.e. what’s now Denmark.

  9. Good piece, nicely written. I agree, the history is way off. I’ve just started watching S2 and was prompted to google for discussions on the accuracy or lack thereof. It’s been as much fun to make lists of the inaccuracies as it has to watch the show. These greatly detract from enjoyment of what should have been a great show, one which I was really excited about before seeing the first episode.

    The Danish Vikings, seafaring folk, being unaware of the existence of that great big island due west! Even if they always sailed hugging the coastline of what is now Low Countries and France they would see England well before they hit the Pas de Calais.

    All the English (no such nation for another hundred years or so) seem to be Christian without exception, which wasn’t the case. The pagan Saxons had pretty much the same religion as the Norse.

    And there is the battle tactics. Shield wall? Yes they did. They learnt it off the Anglo Saxons who learnt it off the Romano British who learnt it off the legions! And probably plenty of other post Roman western European people too, like the Franks. And in S2E1 I’ve just watched, Rollo’s men and Ragnar’s men fought. Two shield walls facing off, fine yes, they did it all the time. Then what? They charge,at a dead run, at each other! Seriously? Suicide. The first side whose shield wall broke cohesion would get slaughtered! The two walls would push and shove, and hack, and thrust spears. Try to break shields, or bash heads, or stab legs under the shields, or hook shields down with axe blades,

  10. This is an old post, but it’s also worthwhile mentioning that Saxons/Angles/Jutes and Danii/Swedes/Geats (the ancestors of the Vikings) all once shared a common language, and common religion; hell, continental Saxons were rebelling against Franks trying to turn them away from Odin, Thor, etc as late as the Viking Age.

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